Examining Strategies to Manage Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms

Note: If you attended the live CE activity AND received CE credit (i.e. a pharmacist CE statement of credit with ACPE UAN 0221-9999-19-520-L01-P, or nurse or physician statement of credit), you are NOT allowed to also receive credit for this home-study on-demand web activity.


A product of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Education Center (SIDPEC) 

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Activity Description

Despite more than a decade of campaigning by key stakeholders, significant gaps remain between recommendations and routine clinical practice for antibiotic prescribing and stewardship initiatives in the face of antibiotic resistance. Because of rapid adaption, microorganisms are continually developing new mechanisms that obstruct antibiotic activity. These epidemiological shifts have the potential to change selection of empiric antibiotic therapy.

Understanding emerging trends in resistance among previously treatable infections is critical for pharmacists and infectious disease specialists to develop alternative management protocols. Because patterns of resistance can vary across regions of the country to different wards within a hospital, providing continuing education is crucial. This activity will discuss mechanisms of resistance, management strategies for highlighted community and hospital-acquired infectious diseases with the most resistance-related concerns, and substitute therapeutic options when guideline or protocol-directed therapies are found to be ineffective.

Target Audience

The target audience for this activity includes pharmacists, nurses and physicians.

Learning Objectives

At the completion of this activity, the participant will be able to:

  • Discuss emerging trends and patterns of resistance in previously treatable bacterial infections.
  • Outline common mechanisms of bacterial resistance.
  • Describe strategies to manage important community and hospital-acquired infectious diseases.
  • Identify substitute therapeutic options when guideline-driven treatment or hospital protocols fail.


Keith S. Kaye, MD, MPH
Professor of Internal Medicine
Director of Research, Division of Infectious Diseases
University of Michigan Medical School

Zahra Kassamali Escobar, PharmD, BCIDP
Co-Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship Program
UW Medicine, Valley Medical Center
Associate Medical Director
University of Washington Tele-Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (UW-TASP)
Clinical Assistant Professor
University of Washington School of Pharmacy

CE Accreditation

Release Date: 12-18-2019
Expiration Date: 2-14-2021


This activity is jointly provided by ProCE, Inc. and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. ProCE, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. ACPE Universal Activity Number 0221-9999-19-520-H01-P has been assigned to this home study knowledge-based activity (initial release date 12-18-2019). This activity is approved for 1.0 contact hours (0.1 CEU) in states that recognize ACPE providers. The activity is provided at no cost to participants. Participants must complete the online post-test and activity evaluation to receive pharmacy CE credit. No partial credit will be given. Statements of completion will be issued online at www.ProCE.com, and proof of completion will be posted in NABP CPE Monitor profiles.


This CE activity is jointly provided by ProCE, Inc. and Wild Iris Medical Education, Inc. This activity provides 1.0 contact hour of nurse CE credit.

Wild Iris Medical Education, Inc. is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.


CME credit provided by AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare.

This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare and ProCE, Inc. AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare designates this on-demand/enduring activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Physician Assistants: NCCPA accepts AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ from organizations accredited by ACCME.

Criteria for Success: Statements of credit will be awarded based on the participant’s attendance and submission of the activity evaluation form. A statement of credit will be available upon completion of an online evaluation/claimed credit form. If you have questions about this CME activity, please contact AKH Inc. at [email protected]


It is the policy of ProCE, Inc. and AKH Inc. to ensure independence, balance, objectivity, scientific rigor, and integrity in all of its continuing education activities. Faculty must disclose to the participants any significant relationships with commercial interests whose products or devices may be mentioned in the activity or with the commercial supporter of this continuing education activity. Identified conflicts of interest are resolved by AKH prior to accreditation of the activity and may include any of or combination of the following: attestation to non-commercial content; notification of independent and certified CME/CE expectations; referral to National Author Initiative training; restriction of topic area or content; restriction to discussion of science only; amendment of content to eliminate discussion of device or technique; use of other author for discussion of recommendations; independent review against criteria ensuring evidence support recommendation; moderator review; and peer review.
Dorothy Caputo, MA, BSN, RN - AKH Director of Accreditations and AKH planners and reviewers have no financial relationships to disclose.
Dr. Keith S. Kaye is a consultant for Melinta, Merck, Shionogi, and Xellia, and stockholder in Merck.
Dr. Zahra Kassamali Escobar has no relevant commercial or financial relationships to disclose.


This course is designed solely to provide the healthcare professional with information to assist in his/her practice and professional development and is not to be considered a diagnostic tool to replace professional advice or treatment. The course serves as a general guide to the healthcare professional, and therefore, cannot be considered as giving legal, nursing, medical, or other professional advice in specific cases. AKH Inc. specifically disclaim responsibility for any adverse consequences resulting directly or indirectly from information in the course, for undetected error, or through participant's misunderstanding of the content.

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use and Investigational Product
This educational activity may include discussion of uses of agents that are investigational and/or unapproved by the FDA. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.


This activity is supported by an educational grant from Merck & Co.


The material presented in this CE activity does not reflect the views of ProCE, Inc. or the commercial sponsor. These materials may discuss uses and dosages for therapeutic products, processes, procedures and inferred diagnoses that have not been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. A qualified health care professional should be consulted before using any therapeutic product discussed. All readers and continuing education participants should verify all information and data before treating patients or employing any therapies described in this continuing education activity.